re2 Build Status

A Ruby binding to re2, an "efficient, principled regular expression library".

Current version: 1.6.0
Supported Ruby versions: 1.8.7, 1.9.3, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.0, 3.1
Supported re2 versions: libre2.0 (< 2020-03-02), libre2.1 (2020-03-02), libre2.6 (2020-03-03), libre2.7 (2020-05-01), libre2.8 (2020-07-06), libre2.9 (2020-11-01)

Installation

You will need re2 installed as well as a C++ compiler such as gcc (on Debian and Ubuntu, this is provided by the build-essential package). If you are using Mac OS X, I recommend installing re2 with Homebrew by running the following:

$ brew install re2

If you are using Debian, you can install the libre2-dev package like so:

$ sudo apt-get install libre2-dev

Recent versions of re2 require a compiler with C++11 support such as clang 3.4 or gcc 4.8.

If you are using a packaged Ruby distribution, make sure you also have the Ruby header files installed such as those provided by the ruby-dev package on Debian and Ubuntu.

You can then install the library via RubyGems with gem install re2 or gem install re2 -- --with-re2-dir=/path/to/re2/prefix if re2 is not installed in any of the following default locations:

  • /usr/local
  • /opt/homebrew
  • /usr

Documentation

Full documentation automatically generated from the latest version is available at http://mudge.name/re2/.

Note that re2's regular expression syntax differs from PCRE and Ruby's built-in Regexp library, see the official syntax page for more details.

Usage

While re2 uses the same naming scheme as Ruby's built-in regular expression library (with Regexp and MatchData), its API is slightly different:

$ irb -rubygems
> require 're2'
> r = RE2::Regexp.new('w(\d)(\d+)')
=> #<RE2::Regexp /w(\d)(\d+)/>
> m = r.match("w1234")
=> #<RE2::MatchData "w1234" 1:"1" 2:"234">
> m[1]
=> "1"
> m.string
=> "w1234"
> m.begin(1)
=> 1
> m.end(1)
=> 2
> r =~ "w1234"
=> true
> r !~ "bob"
=> true
> r.match("bob")
=> nil

As RE2::Regexp.new (or RE2::Regexp.compile) can be quite verbose, a helper method has been defined against Kernel so you can use a shorter version to create regular expressions:

> RE2('(\d+)')
=> #<RE2::Regexp /(\d+)/>

Note the use of single quotes as double quotes will interpret \d as d as in the following example:

> RE2("(\d+)")
=> #<RE2::Regexp /(d+)/>

As of 0.3.0, you can use named groups:

> r = RE2::Regexp.new('(?P<name>\w+) (?P<age>\d+)')
=> #<RE2::Regexp /(?P<name>\w+) (?P<age>\d+)/>
> m = r.match("Bob 40")
=> #<RE2::MatchData "Bob 40" 1:"Bob" 2:"40">
> m[:name]
=> "Bob"
> m["age"]
=> "40"

As of 0.6.0, you can use RE2::Regexp#scan to incrementally scan text for matches (similar in purpose to Ruby's String#scan). Calling scan will return an RE2::Scanner which is enumerable meaning you can use each to iterate through the matches (and even use Enumerator::Lazy):

re = RE2('(\w+)')
scanner = re.scan("It is a truth universally acknowledged")
scanner.each do |match|
  puts match
end

scanner.rewind

enum = scanner.to_enum
enum.next #=> ["It"]
enum.next #=> ["is"]

As of 1.5.0, you can use RE2::Set to match multiple patterns against a string. Calling RE2::Set#add with a pattern will return an integer index of the pattern. After all patterns have been added, the set can be compiled using RE2::Set#compile, and then RE2::Set#match will return an Array<Integer> containing the indices of all the patterns that matched.

set = RE2::Set.new
set.add("abc") #=> 0
set.add("def") #=> 1
set.add("ghi") #=> 2
set.compile #=> true
set.match("abcdefghi") #=> [0, 1, 2]
set.match("ghidefabc") #=> [2, 1, 0]

As of 1.6.0, you can use Ruby's pattern matching against RE2::MatchData with both array patterns and hash patterns:

case RE2('(\w+) (\d+)').match("Alice 42")
in [name, age]
  puts "My name is #{name} and I am #{age} years old"
else
  puts "No match!"
end
# My name is Alice and I am 42 years old


case RE2('(?P<name>\w+) (?P<age>\d+)').match("Alice 42")
in {name:, age:}
  puts "My name is #{name} and I am #{age} years old"
else
  puts "No match!"
end
# My name is Alice and I am 42 years old

Features

  • Pre-compiling regular expressions with RE2::Regexp.new(re), RE2::Regexp.compile(re) or RE2(re) (including specifying options, e.g. RE2::Regexp.new("pattern", :case_sensitive => false)

  • Extracting matches with re2.match(text) (and an exact number of matches with re2.match(text, number_of_matches) such as re2.match("123-234", 2))

  • Extracting matches by name (both with strings and symbols)

  • Checking for matches with re2 =~ text, re2 === text (for use in case statements) and re2 !~ text

  • Incrementally scanning text with re2.scan(text)

  • Search a collection of patterns simultaneously with RE2::Set

  • Checking regular expression compilation with re2.ok?, re2.error and re2.error_arg

  • Checking regular expression "cost" with re2.program_size

  • Checking the options for an expression with re2.options or individually with re2.case_sensitive?

  • Performing a single string replacement with pattern.replace(replacement, original)

  • Performing a global string replacement with pattern.replace_all(replacement, original)

  • Escaping regular expressions with RE2.escape(unquoted) and RE2.quote(unquoted)

  • Pattern matching with RE2::MatchData

Contributions

  • Thanks to Jason Woods who contributed the original implementations of RE2::MatchData#begin and RE2::MatchData#end;
  • Thanks to Stefano Rivera who first contributed C++11 support;
  • Thanks to Stan Hu for reporting a bug with empty patterns and RE2::Regexp#scan;
  • Thanks to Sebastian Reitenbach for reporting the deprecation and removal of the utf8 encoding option in re2;
  • Thanks to Sergio Medina for reporting a bug when using RE2::Scanner#scan with an invalid regular expression;
  • Thanks to Pritam Baral for contributed the initial support for RE2::Set.

Contact

All issues and suggestions should go to GitHub Issues.